A team of researchers mapped over 9,800 tweets with sexual and drug-related themes and found that their locations were a good predictor for established statistics on HIV-prevalence. “Because of the growing amount of social media data, researchers and public health departments will soon be able to build upon these methods to more accurately monitor and detect health behaviors and disease outbreaks.”
A statement from Karl Hofmann, PSI President and CEO
PSI believes that all people share equal human rights and that no person should be subjected to discrimination or violence on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity.
Men who have sex with men are among the highest risk groups for HIV transmission, and discriminatory laws such as those recently adopted in Nigeria and Uganda will increase stigma, incite violence and have a negative health impact.
Such laws also undermine progress toward universal health coverage for all, a national health objective sensibly embraced by Uganda, Nigeria, and many other countries in Africa.
The AIDS epidemic is relatively young. It was only 30 years ago this year that scientists first discovered HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. Perhaps it’s because it’s relatively young that efforts to abate it could learn from history and adopt new approaches.
Now, according to the UN Development Programme (UNDP), it’s time to “Use lessons from fighting HIV to fend off new regional threats in Asia.” From their statement:
“The effective approaches to HIV in Asia and the Pacific have illustrated that a focus on law and human rights, and attention to the needs of marginalized people, can support the achievement of human development objectives,” says Clifton Cortez, UNDP’s HIV, Health and Development Team Leader in Bangkok. “We think the same lessons can be applied to reducing the threat posed by chronic non-communicable diseases that will have catastrophic human and financial impacts in this region,” he says.
Some good news out of Uganda. The government announced that it will double the amount of money it spends on life-saving anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs). It’s hope is to reduce the spread of HIV throughout the country.
The bottom line is that 1.3 million Ugandans will have access to free ARVs over the next year. That is a big jump from the 600,000 currently receiving treatment.
AFP reported on how the country is coming back after falling behind on the battle against HIV/AIDS.
Uganda was once heralded as a success story in the fight against HIV, with President Yoweri Museveni being among the first African leaders to speak openly about AIDS and the government mounting a highly successful public awareness campaign in the late 1980s and 1990s.
Infection rates initially dropped from double to single digits, but according to the most recent statistics, from 2011, the national prevalence rate rose to 7.3 percent from 6.4 percent in 2004-05 — with health officials blaming increased complacency.
“We want to make HIV not a health problem anymore,” the doctor said, explaining the drive would target those who have a low CD4 cell count — or the type of cells that fight infection — as well as the groups most at risk, such as sex workers, truckers and fishing communities.
“If we identify those who are positive early, put them on treatment early, we are going to reduce the community viral load. Once we reduce the community viral load, the rate of transmission in the community is going to come down to very low levels,” Ario explained.
The new policy is expected to cost about 120 million dollars (90 million euros) per year, Ario said, with donors being asked to pick up much of the bill.
More sustained financing is needed to continue global progress against HIV/AIDS. Given the current challenges to global health financing, new solutions are vital to changing the current rate of progress.
“There is a moral obligation to maintain treatment for those who need it, and considerable resources have been implicitly pre-committed to lifelong HIV treatment and care,” say the authors of a recent paper published in the PLoS Medicine journal.
More money also needs to be better spent, they argue. HIV work must be linked to health systems strengthening, a move that will both increase the reach of HIV work and support the underlying health problems that contribute to the problem.
Financing the HIV response must also be achieved without damaging investments in health systems more broadly and other development sectors that are essential for social welfare (in turn addressing a number of the barriers to scaling up the HIV response). An HIV programme may have important external benefits for sexual and reproductive health; maternal and child health; or provide the necessary health system platforms for managing chronic conditions. Similarly, investments in strengthening health systems or addressing related co-morbidities that compound HIV vulnerability or worsen treatment outcomes are critically important to individuals living with HIV. Although core HIV interventions have been demonstrated to be cost-effective, total HIV spending in sub-Saharan African countries was an estimated 19.4% of total health spending in 2007 (range: 0.7%–64.4%). This amount exceeds the relative burden of HIV disability-adjusted life years and is at least partly due to the relatively high costs of HIV treatment compared to treatment for other prevalent diseases. There remains a difference between the amount spent on the HIV response across countries with a similar GDP per capita and HIV prevalence, and more work is required to understand the optimal level of domestic resourcing for HIV, given competing health sector priorities.
There are examples of innovative financing schemes, but they face challenges. The authors recognize that overtaxing and a hyper-focus on HIV/AIDS can do more harm than good. A careful approach that applies lessons learned can ensure changes are effective.
Innovative revenue streams are currently being explored in several countries. These schemes can generate significant funds, as seen in Zimbabwe with the 3% AIDS levy deducted from businesses and formal sector workers’ salaries since 2000 . Other options, such as increased “sin taxes” on alcohol, could generate a “double dividend” by simultaneously increasing revenues and decreasing HIV-related risk behaviours . The development of social health insurance could help attract further household resources and may be an important new source of financing in middle-income countries as development assistance scales down
Read the full research paper here.
What can be done to increase the use of condoms by men in African countries? PSI and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) teamed up over the past year to study and report on the state of play in six African countries. The results are out in six new case studies that will be presented during a consultative meeting on the Total Market Approach that PSI and UNFPA are hosting, today and tomorrow.
During the meeting, participants will discuss the findings from the six case studies conducted in African countries. Then, representatives from ten organizations will discuss how they can work together to support the development and implementation of the Total Market Approach in national markets for male condoms and other family planning supplies.
The UNFPA sponsored case studies were carried out in the past 12 months with support from two independent researchers in Botswana, Lesotho, Mali, South Africa, Swaziland, and Uganda. All of the countries have large condom social marketing programs, are affected by HIV, and have high maternal morbidity and mortality relative to their economic development.
Content for the case studies was based on a review of the literature, seven key TMA metrics calculated from national-level data, and interviews with stakeholders. All case studies were subject to review by stakeholders, including Ministries of Health and non-governmental organizations in all six countries, UNFPA’s local and regional offices, UNFPA headquarters in New York City, PSI country and regional offices, and PSI’s headquarters in Washington DC.
Each case study describe the market for male condoms in each of the countries, and the roles of the public, social marketing, and commercial sectors in those markets.
The cases illustrate the universe of need for condoms, levels of use, socioeconomic equity among users, and the market presence of condoms for reproductive health and HIV prevention (dual protection).
They also propose a set of recommendations for improving the effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability of condom markets.
The studies aim to inform the development of appropriate, evidence-based decisions to increase condom use equitably and sustainably through actions undertaken in the public, socially marketed, and commercial sectors.
This is the third video of the Real Voices series from the International Partnership for Microbicides (IPM). The video highlights clinic researchers and outreach workers offering their reflections on the challenges women in their communities face and their hopes for the future.
IPM and its research partners hope to continue to develop promising new health tools for women, including a monthly vaginal microbicide ring to prevent HIV, now in Phase III trials, and a 60-day dual-purpose ring to prevent HIV and unintended pregnancy in pre-clinical development.
“It is our hope that these products, along with other technologies being developed across the field, will one day soon benefit women, families and communities around the world,” says the IPM.
Real Voices is an IPM video series featuring interviews with scientists, clinicians, advocates and community members, who share their views about the need for microbicides women can use to reduce their risk of HIV infection.
By Dr. Anges Binagwaho, Minister of Health, Rwanda
The op-ed originally appeared in US News and World Report. It is based on an article she co-authored last week in the New England Journal of Medicine on the HRH program together with Paul Farmer, Eric Goosby and others. Available here.
Over the past decade, we have made extraordinary gains against the world’s deadliest diseases thanks to the U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. These initiatives are saving millions of lives every year. In order to make these gains truly sustainable, we must now address a critical challenge in low-income countries: an acute shortage of highly-trained health professionals.
While Sub-Saharan Africa bears 24 percent of the global disease burden, it’s served by only 4 percent of the global health workforce. As the World Health Organization just announced, the global health worker shortage stands at more than 7.2 million today and is expected to grow to 12.9 million by 2035.
A report that my colleagues and I published in the “New England Journal of Medicine” offers compelling new evidence about the power of partnership in helping Rwanda, my country, to overcome this obstacle. The Human Resources for Health program – financed by PEPFAR and The Global Fund – is building health care worker capacity in Rwanda over the next seven years to ensure that we can meet the pressing health challenges facing our people.
By Desmond Tutu
We are making historic progress against HIV/AIDS: The global rate of new HIV infections has leveled, and the number of annual AIDS deaths has decreased by nearly a third since 2005. Antiretroviral drugs are driving these gains by stopping progression of the disease and, we now know, preventing the spread of HIV infections.
Yet AIDS remains the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa, where poverty limits access to lifesaving treatments and 25 million people are living with HIV—representing 70 percent of cases worldwide. President Barack Obama should be commended for uniting the world behind the goal of creating an AIDS-free generation. I share his passion and believe we can achieve this in the next decade—but only if we accelerate the provision of antiretrovirals to the poorest and most vulnerable people.
The opportunity has never been clearer. New data published in the New England Journal of Medicine project that early treatment with antiretrovirals in South Africa, my home country, would prove very cost-effective over a lifetime (costing $590 per life-year saved) and generate both public health and economic benefits. The World Health Organization now recommends early and preventive treatment with antiretrovirals, including administration to children and uninfected partners of people living with the disease. The WHO estimates that this could save an additional 3 million lives and prevent at least as many new HIV infections through 2025.
The Mitr Trust, an HIV drop-in center in New Delhi, India, is helping to deal with the problem of HIV by providing support to the most vulnerable: sex workers and LGBTs in the city.
It builds off evidence that targeted work against HIV/AIDS has helped to reduce the spread of the virus. Noam Levey reports for the LA Times that the projects number of HIV/AIDS positive people in India would reach around 25 million by today. In fact, there are only 2.4 million Indians currently with HIV/AIDS. The projects may have been overestimated, but falling so far below the number is a testament to efforts in the country over the past decade.
Reducing stigma and working with the people living on the margins of society will ensure that HIV/AIDS does not explode in India. Levey writes:
Some countries have granted rights to the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community that go beyond those in the United States.
“This is the first disease where people affected demanded a seat at the table,” said Dr. Chris Beyrer, an epidemiologist who heads the Center for Public Health and Human Rights at Johns Hopkins University. “LGBT communities are literally emerging out of the HIV response.”